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Abstracts on natural anti-inflammatories
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Abstracts on natural anti-inflammatories
Abstracts on natural anti-inflammatories

Colon cancer chemoprevention with ginseng and other botanicals.

“There is a body of literature that suggests that compounds in wine, turmeric, and tea inhibit cyclooxygenases, thus reducing prostaglandin-mediated effects on the colon. As colon tumors have been shown to highly express COX-2 protein, and given, that many NSAID drugs also suppress COX-1, it is tempting to speculate that herbal products that inhibit one or both forms of the COX enzyme will be effective agents for the prevention of cancer in man.”

Anticancer activity of Scutellaria baicalensis and its potential mechanism.

"CONCLUSIONS: Scutellaria baicalensis strongly inhibits cell growth in all cancer cell lines tested. However, prostate and breast cancer cells (PC-3, LNCaP, and MCF-7) are slightly more sensitive than other type of cancer cells. It also inhibits PGE(2) production, indicating that suppression of tumor cell growth may be due to its ability to inhibit COX-2 activity. This study supports the notion of using Scutellaria baicalensis as a novel anticancer agent to treat various cancers."

Isolation of (S)-(+)-naproxene from Musa acuminata. Inhibitory effect of naproxene and its 7-methoxy isomer on constitutive COX-1 and inducible COX-2. (banana)

"The isolation and characterisation of (S)-(+)-6-methoxy-alpha-methyl-2-naphthaleneacetic acid, a well known synthetic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (naproxene), from a natural source is described for the first time."

Specific inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression by dietary curcumin in HT-29 human colon cancer cells.

Characterization of metabolites of the chemopreventive agent curcumin in human and rat hepatocytes and in the rat in vivo, and evaluation of their ability to inhibit phorbol ester-induced prostaglandin E2 production.

Molecular mechanisms underlying chemopreventive activities of anti-inflammatory phytochemicals: down-regulation of COX-2 and iNOS through suppression of NF-kappa B activation.

"Since inflammation is closely linked to tumor promotion, substances with potent anti-inflammatory activities are anticipated to exert chemopreventive effects on carcinogenesis, particularly in the promotion stage. Examples are curcumin, a yellow pigment of turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae), the green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and resveratrol from grapes (Vitis vinifera, Vitaceae) that strongly suppress tumor promotion"

Clinical development of leukocyte cyclooxygenase 2 activity as a systemic biomarker for cancer chemopreventive agents.

"Curcumin, a polyphenol derived from Curcuma spp., has shown wide-ranging chemopreventive activity in preclinical carcinogenic models, in which it inhibits cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 at the transcriptional level."

Anti-tumor promoting potential of selected spice ingredients with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities: a short review.

"A wide variety of phenolic substances derived from spice possess potent antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activities. Examples are curcumin, a yellow colouring agent, contained in turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae), [6]-gingerol, a pungent ingredient present in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae) and capsaicin, a principal pungent principle of hot chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L, Solanaceae)."

Zerumbone, a Southeast Asian ginger sesquiterpene, markedly suppresses free radical generation, proinflammatory protein production, and cancer cell proliferation accompanied by apoptosis: the alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl group is a prerequisite.

"Zerumbone (ZER), a sesquiterpene from the edible plant Zingiber zerumbet Smith, has recently been found to suppress tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced Epstein-Barr virus activation in a potent manner. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive potentials of ZER in a variety of cell culture experiments. ZER effectively suppressed TPA-induced superoxide anion generation from both NADPH oxidase in dimethylsulfoxide-differentiated HL-60 human acute promyelocytic leukemia cells and xanthine oxidase in AS52 Chinese hamster ovary cells. The combined lipopolysaccharide- and interferon-gamma-stimulated protein expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, together with the release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, in RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages were also markedly diminished."

Effect of ginger constituents and synthetic analogues on cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme in intact cells.

"Seventeen pungent oleoresin principles of ginger (Zingiber officinale, Roscoe) and synthetic analogues were evaluated for inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme activity in the intact cell. These compounds exhibited a concentration and structure dependent inhibition of the enzyme, with IC(50) values in the range of 1-25 microM. Ginger constituents, [8]-paradol and [8]-shogaol, as well as two synthetic analogues, 3-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)decane and 5-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)dodecane, showed strong inhibitory effects on COX-2 enzyme activity. The SAR analysis of these phenolic compounds revealed three important structural features that affect COX-2 inhibition: (i) lipophilicity of the alkyl side chain, (ii) substitution pattern of hydroxy and carbonyl groups on the side chain, and (iii) substitution pattern of hydroxy and methoxy groups on the aromatic moiety. "

Chemoprevention of azoxymethane-induced rat aberrant crypt foci by dietary zerumbone isolated from Zingiber zerumbet. (Ginger)

"The modifying effects of dietary feeding of zerumbone isolated from Zingiber zerumbet on the development of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were investigated in male F344 rats. Expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in colonic mucosa exposed to AOM and/or zerumbone was also assayed. In addition, we assessed the effects of zerumbone on cell proliferation activity of crypts by counting silver-stained nucleolar organizer regions protein (AgNORs) in colonic cryptal cell nuclei. To induce ACF rats were given three weekly subcutaneous injections of AOM (15 mg/kg body weight). They were also fed the experimental diet containing 0.01% or 0.05% zerumbone for 5 weeks, starting one week before the first dosing of AOM. AOM exposure produced 84+/-13 ACF/rat at the end of the study (week 5). Dietary administration of zerumbone caused reduction in the frequency of ACF: 72+/-17 (14% reduction) at a dose of 0.01% and 45+/-18 (46% reduction, p<0.001) at a dose of 0.05%. Feeding of zerumbone significantly reduced expression of COX-2 and prostaglandins in colonic mucosa. Zerumbone feeding significantly lowered the number of AgNORs in colonic crypt cell nuclei. These findings might suggest possible chemopreventive ability of zerumbone, through suppression of COX-2 expression, cell proliferating activity of colonic mucosa, and induction of phase II detoxification enzymes in the development of carcinogen-induced ACF."

Hyperforin is a dual inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-1 and 5-lipoxygenase.
(St. Johnswort)

"In thrombin- or ionophore-stimulated human platelets, hyperforin suppressed COX-1 product (12(S)-hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid) formation with an IC(50) of 0.3 and 3 microM, respectively, being about 3- to 18-fold more potent than aspirin.

"We conclude that hyperforin acts as a dual inhibitor of 5-LO and COX-1 in intact cells as well as on the catalytic activity of the crude enzymes, suggesting therapeutic potential in inflammatory and allergic diseases connected to eicosanoids."

Inhibitory effect of Carthamus tinctorius L. seed extracts on bone resorption mediated by tyrosine kinase, COX-2 (cyclooxygenase) and PG (prostaglandin) E2.

Quantitative determination of the dual COX-2/5-LOX inhibitor tryptanthrin in Isatis tinctoria by ESI-LC-MS.

"Isatis tinctoria L. is an old European and Chinese dye plant and anti-inflammatory herb from which the potent cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor tryptanthrin (1) (indolo-[2,1-b]-quinazoline-6,12-dione) was recently isolated as one of the active principles."

Wogonin, baicalin, and baicalein inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 gene expressions induced by nitric oxide synthase inhibitors and lipopolysaccharide. (Chinese herb Huang Qui)

"We previously reported that oroxylin A, a polyphenolic compound, was a potent inhibitor of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)."

Molecular mechanisms underlying anti-tumor promoting activities of heat-processed Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer.

"Certain fractions or purified ingredients of ginseng have been shown to exert anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic activities. Our previous studies have revealed that the methanol extract of heat-processed Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer attenuates the lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenates and is also capable of scavenging superoxide generated by xanthine- xanthine oxidase or by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in differentiated human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells. Topical application of the same extract onto shaven backs of female ICR mice also suppressed TPA-induced skin tumor promotion. Likewise, topical application of ginsenoside Rg3, one of the constituents of heat-treated ginseng, significantly inhibited TPA-induced mouse epidermal ornithine decarboxylase activity and skin tumor promotion. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in TPA-stimulated mouse skin was markedly suppressed by Rg3 pretreatment. In addition, Rg3 inhibited TPA-stimulated activation of NF-kappaB and extracellular-regulated protein kinase (ERK), one of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in mouse skin and also in cultured human breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A)."

Curcumin prevents alcohol-induced liver disease in rats by inhibiting the expression of NF-kappa B-dependent genes.

"Treatment with curcumin prevented both the pathological and biochemical changes induced by alcohol. Because endotoxin and the Kupffer cell are implicated in the pathogenesis of ALD, we investigated whether curcumin suppressed the stimulatory effects of endotoxin in isolated Kupffer cells. Curcumin blocked endotoxin-mediated activation of NF-kappaB and suppressed the expression of cytokines, chemokines, COX-2, and iNOS in Kupffer cells. Thus curcumin prevents experimental ALD, in part by suppressing induction of NF-kappaB-dependent genes."

Inhibitory effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on the activity and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in human oral epithelial cells and in a rat model of inflammation.

"We investigated the mechanisms by which caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a phenolic antioxidant, inhibited the stimulation of prostaglandin (PG) synthesis in cultured human oral epithelial cells and in an animal model of acute inflammation." "CAPE nonselectively inhibited the activities of baculovirus-expressed hCOX-1 and hCOX-2 enzymes."

Resveratrol inhibits cyclooxygenase-2 transcription and activity in phorbol ester-treated human mammary epithelial cells.

"We determined whether resveratrol, a phenolic antioxidant found in grapes and other food products, inhibited phorbol ester (PMA)-mediated induction of COX-2 in human mammary and oral epithelial cells. " "PMA caused about a 6-fold increase in COX-2 promoter activity, which was suppressed by resveratrol." "Transient transfections utilizing COX-2 promoter deletion constructs and COX-2 promoter constructs, in which specific enhancer elements were mutagenized, indicated that the effects of PMA and resveratrol were mediated via a cyclic AMP response element."

"Resveratrol inhibited PMA-mediated activation of protein kinase C. Overexpressing protein kinase C-alpha, ERK1, and c-Jun led to 4.7-, 5.1-, and 4-fold increases in COX-2 promoter activity, respectively. These effects also were inhibited by resveratrol. Resveratrol blocked PMA-dependent activation of AP-1-mediated gene expression. In addition to the above effects on gene expression, we found that resveratrol also directly inhibited the activity of COX-2. These data are likely to be important for understanding the anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties of resveratrol."

Anti-inflammatory activity of Chinese medicinal vine plants.

"The extract from S. suberectus was found to be active against all enzymes except COX-2. Its IC(50) values were 158, 54, 31 and 35 microg/ml in COX-1, PLA(2), 5-LO and 12-LO assays, respectively. T. jasminoides showed potent inhibitory activities against both COX-1 (IC(50) 35 microg/ml) and PLA(2) (IC(50) 33 microg/ml). The most potent COX-1, COX-2 and 5-LO inhibition was observed in the extract of T. wilfordii with the IC(50) values of 27, 125 and 22 microg/ml, respectively. The findings of this study may partly explain the use of these vine plants in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of inflammatory conditions."

Screening of ubiquitous plant constituents for COX-2 inhibition with a scintillation proximity based assay.

"Plant metabolites of different biosynthetic origin representing several substance classes, including alkaloids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, phenylpropanes, steroids, and terpenes, were screened for inhibition of COX-2-catalyzed PGE(2) production. Of these 49 plant metabolites, eugenol, pyrogallol, and cinnamaldehyde (with IC(50) values of 129, 144, and 245 microM, respectively) were found to inhibit COX-2. This study showed that a COX-2-catalyzed PGE(2) assay using SPA is suitable for screening natural compounds with respect to COX-2 inhibition."

Antioxidant, free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory effects of aloesin derivatives in Aloe vera.

Effects of sphondin, isolated from Heracleum laciniatum, on IL-1beta-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human pulmonary epithelial cells.

"Taken together, we demonstrate that sphondin inhibits IL-1beta-induced PGE(2) release in A549 cells; this inhibition is mediated by suppressing of COX-2 expression, rather than by inhibiting COX-2 enzyme activity. The inhibitory mechanism of sphondin on IL-1beta-induced COX-2 expression may be, at least in part, through suppression of NF-kappaB activity. We conclude that sphondin may have the therapeutic potential as an anti-inflammatory drug on airway inflammation."

Effects of tanshinone I isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza bunge on arachidonic acid metabolism and in vivo inflammatory responses. (red sage)

In-vivo and in-vitro anti-inflammatory effect of Echinacea purpurea and Hypericum perforatum. (echinacea and St. Johnswort)

"Western blot analysis showed that in-vivo treatment with these extracts could modulate lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in peritoneal macrophages. In particular, treatment with 100 mg kg(-1) hypericum inhibited both iNOS and COX-2 expression, whereas treatment with 100 mg kg(-1) echinacea down-regulated only COX-2 expression. The present study suggests that the anti-inflammatory effect of these extracts could be in part related to their modulation of COX-2 expression."

Inhibition of prostaglandin E(2) production by taiwanin C isolated from the root of Acanthopanax chiisanensis and the mechanism of action.

"However, the activities of isolated COX-1 and COX-2 were inhibited by taiwanin C (IC(50)=1.06 and 9.31 microM, respectively), reflecting the inhibition of both COX-1- and COX-2-dependent PGE(2) production in the cell culture system. These findings suggest that the mechanism of action of taiwanin C in the inhibition of PGE(2) production is the direct inhibition of COX enzymatic activity."

Inhibitory activity of tryptanthrin on prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis.

"The indolo[2,1- b]quinazoline alkaloid tryptanthrin has previously been identified as the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitory principle in the extract ZE550 prepared from the medicinal plant Isatis tinctoria (Brassicaceae). We here investigated the potential inhibitory activity of tryptanthrin and ZE550 on COX-2, COX-1 in cellular and cell-free systems. A certain degree of selectivity towards COX-2 was observed when COX-1-dependent formation of thromboxane B(2) (TxB(2)) in HEL cells and COX-2-dependent formation of 6-ketoprostaglandin F(1alpha) (6-keto-PGF(1alpha)) in Mono Mac 6 and RAW 264.7 cells were compared. Preferential inhibition of COX-2 by two orders of magnitude was found in phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) activated bovine aortic coronary endothelial cells (BAECs). Assays with purified COX isoenzymes from sheep confirmed the high selectivity towards COX-2. The leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) release from calcium ionophore-stimulated human granulocytes (neutrophils) was used as a model to determine 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) activity. Tryptanthrin and the extract ZE550 inhibited LTB(4) release in a dose dependent manner and with a potency comparable to that of the clinically used 5-LOX inhibitor zileuton."

Inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors of Chinese herbs III. Rheum palmatum.

“However, expression of iNOS and the COX-2 protein was inhibited by emodin in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells, and PGE(2) production was reduced.”

Suppression of N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA)-induced esophageal tumorigenesis in F344 rats by resveratrol. (grapes)

"Our study suggests that resveratrol suppressed NMBA-induced rat esophageal tumorigenesis by targeting COXs and PGE(2), and therefore may be a promising natural anti-carcinogenesis agent for the prevention and treatment of human esophageal cancer."

Atropisomeric myristinins: selective COX-2 inhibitors and antifungal agents from Myristica cinnamomea.

"The first naturally occurring atropisomeric flavans, myristinins B (2), C (2a), E (4), and F (4a), together with their corresponding trans-isomers, myristinins A (1) and D (3), were isolated from the CH(2)Cl(2) extract of Myristica cinnamomea fruits. Compounds 1, the mixture of 2 and 2a, and the mixture of 4 and 4a, exhibited antifungal activity against Candida albicans with IC(50) values ranging from 5.9 to 8.8 microg/mL, and they selectively inhibited the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)."

Inhibitory effects of the standardized extract (DA-9601) of Artemisia asiatica Nakai on phorbol ester-induced ornithine decarboxylase activity, papilloma formation, cyclooxygenase-2 expression, inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and nuclear transcription factor kappa B activation in mouse skin. (wormwood)

“In the present study, we assessed the inhibitory effect of DA-9601 on tumor promotion, which is closely linked to inflammatory tissue damage. As an initial approach to evaluating the possible antitumor-promoting potential of DA-9601, its effects on TPA-induced ear edema were examined in female ICR mice. Pretreatment of the inner surface of the mouse ear with DA-9601 30 min prior to topical application of TPA inhibited ear edema at 5 hr. TPA-stimulated expression of epidermal COX-2 and iNOS was also mitigated by topical application of the same extract. Moreover, DA-9601 abrogated the TPA-mediated activation of NF-kappa B/Rel and AP-1 in mouse epidermis. Suppression of epidermal NF-kappa B by DA-9601 appeared to be mediated in part through inhibition of I kappa B alpha degradation, thereby blocking the nuclear translocation of p65, the functional subunit of NF-kappa B. DA-9601 also significantly suppressed TPA-induced ODC activity and papilloma formation in mouse skin. Taken together, these findings suggest that DA-9601 derived from A. asiatica possesses potential chemopreventive activities.”

Suppressive effect of natural sesquiterpenoids on inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2) and nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity in mouse macrophage cells. (ginger and turmeric)

“Xanthorrhizol, a sesquiterpenoid, isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. (Zingiberaceae), exhibited a potent inhibition of COX-2 (IC50 = 0.2 microg/mL) and iNOS activity (IC50 = 1.0 microg/mL) in the assay system of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) accumulation and nitric oxide production, respectively. Western blot analyses revealed that the inhibitory potential of xanthorrhizol on the COX-2 activity coincided well with the suppression of COX-2 protein expression in LPS-induced macrophages. In addition, sesquiterpenoids beta-turmerone and ar-turmerone isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) also showed a potent inhibitory activity of COX-2 (beta-turmerone, IC50 = 1.6 microg/mL; ar-turmerone, IC50 = 5.2 microg/mL) and iNOS (beta-turmerone, IC50 = 4.6 microg/mL; ar-turmerone, IC50 = 3.2 microg/mL). These results suggest that natural sesquiterpenoids from C. xanthorrhiza and C. zedoaria might be lead candidates for further developing COX-2 or iNOS inhibitors possessing cancer chemopreventive or anti-inflammatory properties.”

Effects of yakuchinone A and yakuchinone B on the phorbol ester-induced expression of COX-2 and iNOS and activation of NF-kappaB in mouse skin. (ginger family)

“Both compounds have strong inhibitory effects on the synthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes in vitro. In the present work, we show that both yakuchinone A and yakuchinone B inhibit the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) as well as the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha mRNA in mouse skin treated with the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Topical application on mouse skin of these diarylheptanoids also attenuated the TPA-induced DNA binding activity of the ubiquitous eukaryotic transcription factor NF-kappaB that plays a crucial role in regulating the expression of the aforementioned proinflammatory enzymes and cytokines in response to a wide variety of external stimuli. These findings suggest that diarylheptanoids contained in Alpinia oxyphylla down-regulate COX-2 and iNOS expression through suppression of NF-kappaB activation in the TPA-treated mouse skin.”

Effects of prodelphinidins isolated from Ribes nigrum on chondrocyte metabolism and COX activity.

Cancer chemopreventive and antioxidant activities of pterostilbene, a naturally occurring analogue of resveratrol. (grapes)

Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitory 1,4-naphthoquinones from Impatiens balsamina L.

"Significant selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitory activities were observed for two new 1,4-naphthoquinone sodium salts, sodium 3-hydroxide-2[[sodium 3-hydroxide-1,4-dioxo(2-naphthyl)]ethyl]naphthalene-1,4-dione (impatienolate) (1) and sodium 2-hydroxide-3-(2-hydroxyethyl)naphthalene-1,4-dione (balsaminolate) (2), which were isolated from the corolla of Impatiens balsamina L. (Balsaminaceae). Their structures were elucidated by spectral techniques. Our results offer evidence supporting the use of I. balsamina L. to treat articular rheumatism, pain, and swelling."

In vitro antiinflammatory activity of kalopanaxsaponin A isolated from Kalopanax pictus in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells.

“Among the tested monodesmosides, kalopanxsaponin A was the most potent inhibitor of NO production, and it also significantly decreased PGE2 and TNF-alpha release. Consistent with these observations, the expression level of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 enzyme was inhibited by kalopanxsaponin A in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, this study suggests that kalopanaxsaponin A-mediated inhibition of iNOS, COX-2 expression, and TNF-alpha release may be one of the mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of the stem bark of Kalopanax pictus Nakai.”

Potential cancer-chemopreventive activities of wine stilbenoids and flavans extracted from grape (Vitis vinifera) cell cultures.

“In the cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 assay, trans isomers of the stilbenoids appear to be more active than cis isomers: trans-resveratrol [50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) = 14.9 microM, 96%] vs. cis-resveratrol (IC50 = 55.4 microM). In the COX-2 assay, among the compounds tested, only trans- and cis-resveratrol exhibited significant inhibitory activity (IC50 = 32.2 and 50.2 microM, respectively). This is the first report showing the potential cancer-chemopreventive activity of trans-astringin, a plant stilbenoid recently found in wine. trans-Astringin and its aglycone trans-piceatannol were active in the mouse mammary gland organ culture assay but did not exhibit activity in COX-1 and COX-2 assays. trans-Resveratrol was active in all three of the bioassays used in this investigation. These findings suggest that trans-astringin and trans-piceatannol may function as potential cancer-chemopreventive agents by a mechanism different from that of trans-resveratrol.”

Grape polyphenols inhibit chronic ethanol-induced COX-2 mRNA expression in rat brain.

"GP completely inhibited the increase in COX-2 due to ethanol treatment."

Pharmacological and phytochemical screening of two Hyacinthaceae species: Scilla natalensis and Ledebouria ovatifolia.

"In the anti-inflammatory screening, the dichloromethane and hexane extracts of S. natalensis resulted in good inhibition against both COX-1 and COX-2."

Furanoligularenone, an eremophilane from Ligularia fischeri, inhibits the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 in macrophage RAW264.7 cells.

Isolation and pharmacological activity of phenylpropanoid esters from Marrubium vulgare.

"Only the glycosidic phenylpropanoid esters showed an inhibitory activity towards the Cox-2 enzyme and three of them: acteoside 2, forsythoside B 3, arenarioside 4, exhibited higher inhibitory potencies on Cox-2 than on Cox-1."

Iridoids with anti-inflammatory activity from Vitex peduncularis.

"Both pedunculariside and agnuside showed preferential inhibition of COX-2, with IC50 values of 0.15 +/- 0.21 mg/ml and 0.026 +/- 0.015 mg/ml respectively, while having only small inhibitory effects on COX-1."

Inhibition of cyclooxygenase and prostaglandin E2 synthesis by gamma-mangostin, a xanthone derivative in mangosteen, in C6 rat glioma cells.

"Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis indicated that gamma-mangostin competitively inhibited the activities of both COX-1 and -2. This study is a first demonstration that gamma-mangostin, a xanthone derivative, directly inhibits COX activity."

Effects of naturally occurring prenylated flavonoids on enzymes metabolizing arachidonic acid: cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases.

Development and use of a gene promoter-based screen to identify novel inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2 transcription.

Triptolide, a novel diterpenoid triepoxide from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f., suppresses the production and gene expression of pro-matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 3 and augments those of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases 1 and 2 in human synovial fibroblasts.

"Triptolide also inhibited the IL-1alpha-induced production of PGE2 by selectively suppressing the gene expression and production of COX-2"

Avicins, a family of triterpenoid saponins from Acacia victoriae (Bentham), inhibit activation of nuclear factor-kappaB by inhibiting both its nuclear localization and ability to bind DNA. (acacia)

"Avicin G treatment resulted in decreased expression of NF-kappaB-regulated proteins such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX-2)."

Identification and isolation of the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitory principle in Isatis tinctoria.

Cox-2 inhibitory effects of naturally occurring and modified fatty acids.

Ergolide, sesquiterpene lactone from Inula britannica, inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclo-oxygenase-2 expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages through the inactivation of NF-kappaB.

An avocado constituent, persenone A, suppresses expression of inducible forms of nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase in macrophages, and hydrogen peroxide generation in mouse skin.

Resveratrol analog, 3,4,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene, differentially induces pro-apoptotic p53/Bax gene expression and inhibits the growth of transformed cells but not their normal counterparts.

"While R-4 prominently induced the p53/Bax pro-apoptotic genes, it also concomitantly suppressed the expression of Cox-2 in WI38VA cells. Taken together, our study suggests that the induction of p53 gene by R-4 in transformed cells may play a key role in the differential growth inhibition and apoptosis of transformed cells."

Inhibitory effects of cimicifugae rhizoma extracts on histamine, bradykinin and COX-2 mediated inflammatory actions. (black cohosh)

Anti-inflammatory activity of dichloromethane extract of Heterotheca inuloides in vivo and in vitro.

Cryptocarya species--substitute plants for Ocotea bullata? A pharmacological investigation in terms of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 inhibition.
07-01-2012 02:18 AM
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