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Carcinogenic properties of coffee. - James - 07-15-2012 12:29 PM

J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Dec 4;50(25):7477-81.

Incidence, level, and behavior of aflatoxins during coffee bean roasting and decaffeination.

Soliman KM.


Food Toxicology and Contaminants Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.


Screening for aflatoxins (Afs), isolation and identification of Aspergillus flavus, and the effect of decaffeination and roasting on the level of contamination in coffee beans are studied. The percent frequency of A. flavus ranged between 4 and 80% in green coffee beans (GCB), whereas in ground roasted coffee beans (GRCB), it ranged between 1 and 71%. Aflatoxins were detected in 76.5 and 54.6% of the infected samples with averages of 4.28 and 2.85 microg/kg of GCB and GRCB, respectively. Roasting was demonstrated to lower the concentration of Afs in GCB. The Afs levels were reduced by approximately 42.2-55.9% depending on the type and temperature of roasting. The highest yields of Afs were detected in the decaffeinated green coffee beans (24.29 microg/kg) and roasted coffee beans (16.00 microg/kg). The growth of A. flavus in liquid medium containing 1 or 2% caffeine was reduced by 50%, and the level of aflatoxin in the medium was undetectable.

RE: Carcinogenic properties of coffee. - James - 07-15-2012 12:30 PM

J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Nov 14;55(23):9719-26. Epub 2007 Oct 18.

Effect of roasting conditions on the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content in ground Arabica coffee and coffee brew.

Houessou JK, Maloug S, Leveque AS, Delteil C, Heyd B, Camel V.


AgroParisTech, UMR AgroParisTech/INRA 214 IAQA, 16 Rue Claude Bernard, 75231 Paris cedex 05, France.


Roasting is a critical process in coffee production as it enables the development of flavor and aroma. At the same time, roasting may lead to the formation of nondesirable compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, Arabica green coffee beans from Cuba were roasted under controlled conditions to monitor PAH formation during the roasting process. Roasting was performed in a pilot spouted bed roaster, with the inlet air temperature varying from 180 to 260 degrees C, using both dark (20 min) and light (5 min) roasting conditions. Several PAHs were determined in both roasted coffee samples and green coffee samples. Also, coffee brews, obtained using an electric coffee maker, were analyzed for final estimation of PAH transfer coefficients to the infusion. Formation of phenanthrene, anthracene, and benzo[a]anthracene in coffee beans was observed at temperatures above 220 degrees C, whereas formation of pyrene and chrysene required 260 degrees C. Low levels of benzo[g,h,i]perylene were also noted for dark roasting under 260 degrees C, with simultaneous partial degradation of three-cycle PAHs, suggesting that transformation of low molecular PAHs to high molecular PAHs occurs as the roasting degree is increased. The PAH transfer to the infusion was quite moderate (<35%), with a slightly lower extractability for dark-roasted coffee as compared to light-roasted coffee.

RE: Carcinogenic properties of coffee. - James - 07-15-2012 12:34 PM

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and cancer in man.